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Jones County, traversed as it is by the North and South Maquoketa and Wapsipinicon Rivers, has been obliged to expend in the building of bridges sums which to other counties would seem almost marvelous. Not only have these larger streams made heavy drafts upon the county treasury, but numerous creeks have demanded a steady expenditure of the public funds to render them passable. It has been the custom of the Board of Supervisors usually to make appropriations in part for the building of bridges, expecting the remainder to be raised by subscription. Thus an appropriation would be made with the understanding that the citizens most interested in the bridge would subscribe and pay $1 to every $2 expended by the county, or $1 to every $3 of the public funds. Wooden bridges only were erected for a time, but a longer-sighted policy has of late years led to the building of substantial iron superstructures.
The first bridge of importance in the county was thrown across the Wapsipincon near where the Anamosa Cemetery now is. This was on the old Military road from Dubuque to Iowa City. The bridge was built by the Government, at an expense of $2,900, Calvin Reed being the contractor.
In 1857, $2,000 was appropriated by the County Judge to assist in bridging the South Maquoketa, and $1,800 to span the Wapsipinicon at Overacker's Ferry.
A bridge was built at Metcalf's and Graham's Mills, across the Wapsipinicon, in 1862-63, at a cost of $2,500, of which the county paid one half.
A bridge at Oxford's Mills was built in 1865, with A. A. Reilly as contractor, at a total cost of $4,674, of which the county paid about one-half.
In November, 1864, $2,000 was appropriated toward building a $3,000 bridge at Monticello.
In 1865, a bridge was built at Newport, for $3,900, of which $2,350 was contributed by the county, and the remainder raised by subscription. In 1872, this was replaced by an iron bridge, built by the King Bridge Company, and costing $13,500.
A bridge over Walnut Creek, at Rome, was built at an expense of $2,528.50.
An appropriation was made in November, 1868, to bridge Buffalo Creek, at Fremont's Mills, at a cost of $3,000, two-thirds to be paid by the county.
In January, 1869, $3,000 was appropriated for the bridging of the Wapsipinicon, near Ballou's stone quarry, in Hale Township. A subsequent appropriation of $2,450 was made in the following year. The entire cost of the bridge was near $8,000.
Appropriations were made in 1870, for bridges at Corbet's Mill and Clay Mills, each to cost near $3,000, of which the county would pay two-thirds, the remainder to be raised by subscription.
An iron bridge was built across the south fork of the Maquoketa River, near Walter's Mills, in June, 1871.
In the winter of 1872-73, the bridge at Monticello was taken out by the ice, and a superstructure of iron was substituted by the Massillon Bridge Company, in the summer following. The iron bridge across the Wapsipinicon at Anamosa, was completed by the Ohio Bridge Company, during the same season.
The bridge at Supple's Mills was completed in 1875, at an expense of $6,654.46. The contractors were Kline, Wybel & Co., and Z. King & Co.
The iron bridge across the Buffalo at Fisher's Mills, completed in 1878, cost $9,620.42.
The bridge at Olin, completed in October, 1877, by the King Bridge Company is a substantial structure and cost Jones County $9,737.53.
|TIMBER, HEDGES, ETC.
To encourage the cultivation of trees, orchards and hedges, the Board of Supervisors, at the June meeting, 1878, resolved that $100 should be deducted from the assessment of each person having planted and cultivated an acre of forest trees, with not less than five hundred trees per acre; also, a deduction of $100 for each half-mile of two-year-old hedge, and $100 for each acre of fruit trees duly cultivated and planted; provided always, that in each case the owner send to the Board a general statement of the manner of planting and cultivation.
|CENSUS OF 1840 AND DEAF MUTES
We quote from an article published in the "Annals of Iowa," October, 1871, written by Edmund Booth, of Anamosa, for more than twenty years the editor of the Eureka. Mr. Booth, though usually classed among deaf mutes, is not really such. He lost his hearing when a mere lad, and has the power of speech in a limited way. He was educated at the Hartford Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, and was subsequently, for seven years, a teacher in that institution. He writes:
"In the spring of 1840, the site of what is now Anamosa did not contain a human dwelling of any kind. At the distance of a mile or more therefrom, and at a point now called Fisherville, there stood a log house, about 18x20 feet in size, owned by a company engaged in building mills, such as were needed by frontiersmen for grinding or sawing. The company consisted of Timothy Davis, of Dubuque; Gideon H. Ford and George H. Walworth, the first and last named being subsequently know in Iowa politics. There being no house within five miles of the place, Mr. Walworth brought two of his sisters from their home in Illinois to aid in housekeeping. One of these sisters was a mute from New Hampshire, and educated at the Hartford institution. Another mute, a young man, also educated at the same school, Mr. Walworth found at Alton, Ill., and brought on, as a skillful carpenter. The name of this young man was L. N. Perkins.
"In May or June of the year above indicated, a brother-in-law of the writer, Col. David Wood, of Springfield, Mass., arrived with his family, and with him I decided to erect a frame dwelling-the first frame dwelling erected in the county-on the site of what afterwards became the town of Anamosa. The frame was prepared at the mills near the log house aforesaid, and in June or July we proceeded to dig the cellar.
"One day, while engaged in the latter occupation, in company with Perkins, whom I had hired for the purpose, no other person being present, the Sheriff of the county, Hugh Bowen, came along in his usual way, on horseback. He stopped, dismounted, drew a roll of papers from a tin case, and entered our names, places of nativity, etc., in the census of 1840. Having performed this duty, the Sheriff remounted his horse and proceeded to the log house before mentioned. While he was entering our name and all the et ceteras, I noticed that his paper was printed in the form usual upon occasions of this kind, and that he placed the proper figure under the head of deaf mutes. The taking of the census was completed throughout the country, and was in due season printed and laid before Congress and the public. Many persons now living will remember the storm which the publication of this census brought up. John Quincy Adams, ex-President and then member of the Lower House at Washington, and others, as well as the newspapers, attacked it fiercely as having been manipulated in the interests of slavery. John Tyler was President, through the death of Harrison, and John C. Calhoun was Secretary of State. The office of Secretary of the Interior had not been created, and the Census Bureau had charge of census affairs subject to the control of the Secretary of State. The abolition war was raging in Congress and out, the Southern politicians and Northern tools declared slavery divine-the best possible condition for the blacks. To prove the truth of this latter assertion, the census returns had been so falsified as to show that a far greater proportion of the free blacks of the North were variously afflicted with physical infirmities than was the case with the enslaved blacks of the South; but possibly because there were not enough blacks in some of the Northern States or because the fraud might be too easily detected, or because Southern statesmen in their ignorance of the real state of things in the North, supposed Northern mutes were generally uneducated, as those of the slave-holding States, the mutes of the North were very liberally classed in the published returns as deaf, dumb, blind, idiotic, insane and colored!
"Years passed until 1847, and the Territory of Iowa had become a State. The subject of a school for deaf mutes within our borders had occasionally crossed my mind and been dismissed as untimely. As a Territory, nothing could be done save in a private way. Iowa, as a State, could make provisions whereby mutes might have equal educational privileges with hearing children. But the State was neither populous nor wealthy enough to embark in costly schemes, and I therefore wrote to Thomas Officer, Principal of the Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, at Jacksonville. Ill., to ascertain whether, and on what terms, his school would receive and educate the mutes of Iowa. His answer was favorable; the terms, I think, $100 a year for board and tuition. This was during the early part of the session of 1848-49 of the Iowa Legislature.
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