The surface of the country in this county is rolling, not in waves, but thrown into heaps and low conical hills, the valleys winding in every direction, with considerable timber along the water courses, and here and there groves of oak, maple, walnut, ash, and cottonwood on the prairies. The soil is fertile and produces wheat, corn, oats and potatoes abundantly, the climate salubrious, and the whole county well watered by the Maquoketa and Wapsipinicon Rivers, which run in a southeasterly direction, and are fed by numerous tributaries. Flourishing orchards of apples, cherries, wild plums and small fruit are rapidly growing in all parts of the county. The chief employment is grain and cattle raising and the dairy business. There are several cheese factories in the northern part, and some fine horses and blooded stock are exported from this county.
The first settlers located at Bowen's Prairie and at Monticello, in 1836, in Fairview, Scotch Grove, Washington and Clay Townships in 1837, and at Anamosa in 1838. Wyoming, Rome, Jackson, Wayne, etc., were selected about this time, and some of them before 1838.
The facts herein recorded have been obtained from the old settlers themselves, from papers which have been published at old settlers' meetings, and from the records. The early records of this county, however, have been lost, and testimony depending upon the memory of county officials, etc., is the best that can now
We state, in passing, that some claim to have settled in the county in 1835, but since they assert that they came a year after certain other parties who have left a written record that they came in 1837, there is evidently some mistake about it.
The following is a detailed account of a few of the first settled towns;
This place was first settled by Hugh Bowen in 1836, who visited the locality in company with John Flinn, Moses Collins, Joshua Johnson and Alfred Weatherford, who came the same year. The prairie was surveyed in 1837. T. S. Denson, G. Laughlin and C. Johnson selected their claims about this time, and the Delong family took possession of the falls near Cascade, where the first grist mill was built.
Reverend John Gillham, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, held the first religious service in February, 1838. The first death was that of Alfred Denson, a lad six years old, who was lost on the prairie in a storm and perished April 24, 1838. Barrett Whittemore came this year and built his cabin near where he now resides. The first general election in the county for delegate to the Territorial Legislature, was held at Whittemore's house, where was also held the first preliminary meeting for the organization of Jones County. The first school house was built October 19, 1840, and was used for schools, courts and religious meetings. Hugh Bowen built the first frame barn in 1841. The town was laid out by Otis Whittemore. At present it contains two churches, a school house, and about a dozen dwellings. The following were among the earlier settlers; William C. Johnson, William More, Thomas Dixon, John O'Sullivan, John Williamson, William Brazelton, Frank Dawson, Fletcher Burnight, William Tibbits, Mr. Vansant, David Graham, William Hines, James Miller, Alexander Laughlin, George White, Judge John Taylor, J. H. Eaton, J. P. Tibits, James Henderson, William Micheljohn, William Dawson, George G. Banghart, Joseph Green and James McVay. R. A. Rynerson set out the first nursery on the prairie in 1845. The first white child born was Cava, daughter of Charles Johnson.
Was first settled by Daniel Varvel, who erected his cabin in the Fall of 1836, and a few weeks afterwards was joined by William Clark. During the latter part of the Winter of 1836-'7, Richard South and wife settled in the vicinity. From this period up to 1840, T. J. Peak, B. Beardsley, J. McLaughlin, T. Galligen, John Stephenson and others arrived. Honorable Ansel Briggs, first Governor of Iowa, secured a mail contract from Dubuque to Iowa City via Monticello, and a two-horse coach was put on the route in 1839. The first couple married was T. J. Peak and Rebecca M. Beardsley, in 1840a journey of sixty miles being necessary to secure the license. Mr. Varvel married Margaret E. Beardsley the same year.
In 1841 a post office was established, William Clark post master. The same year James Skelly came. The military road was laid out in 1842, through Monticello. Doctor W.B. Selders opened the first office in 1849, and was the first resident physician. In 1850 the Township of Monticello, including Richland and Castle Grove, was laid out, and the following year it was reduced to its present limits. In 1852 the first blacksmith shop by Dunlap, and the first hotel by Holstein were opened, and the first sawmill and store the following year. September 29, 1853, D. Varvel and G. H. Walworth platted the town, and James Finton purchased the first lot. John Tabor was appointed the first justice of the peace in 1855, and Mr. West erected a dry goods and grocery store. The first notary was D. C. Quimby. M. M. Moulton was the first coroner in 1856, and F. Reiger built the first wagon shop in 1857.
In 1858 the railroad question was agitated; the school district established; Lodge No. 117, I.O.O.F., instituted; the first lumber yard, by J. L. Davenport; and the first flour made in the E. M. mills. In 1859 the first locomotive on the Dubuque & Southwestern Railroad went through Monticello; the graded school building erected; a tin shop on Main Street; a dry goods store west of the railroad; the first grain warehouse built; and the first law office opened, by A. J. Munroe.
In 1860 the Congregational Church and Sunday School were organized; a stone and brick store, by E. C. Wales, a photograph gallery, by D. B. McDonald, were erected; the following year the Methodist Episcopal church, lodge of Good Templars, and the first cooper shop, by Hoyt & Stowell, were commenced.
In 1862 H. H. Fuller opened a drug store; Company H, 31st Iowa Infantry, S. S. Farwell, Captain, was organized; and the year following C. C. Gilman built the first elevator, Houser & Gurney opened the first furniture manufactory.
In 1864 "Bradstreet's addition," of fifty-nine lots, and "Turk's addition, of forty-six lots, were made, and the first exclusively brick building built. The following year M. M. Moulton and O. D. Crane established the Monticello Express-first issue July 10, 1865; the first telegraph office, bakery, horse fair, horse protection society, Burn's Lodge, No. 173, were also established.
In 1866 Varvel's addition, of twenty-eight lots, the Disciples' church, Academy, were opened.
In 1867 Monticello was incorporated as a city; S. Y. Bradstreet elected the first mayor; the Episcopal Church, Library Association, Young Men's Christian Association, were organized, and the corner-stone of the Congregational Church laid.
In 1868 a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons was convoked; a foundry and machine shop started; Catholic Church, Baptist Church, Presbyterian Church and fire company were organized.
At this date (1875) Monticello contains six dry goods stores, eight groceries, four drug stores, four boot and shoe stores, two clothing stores, two book stores, two butter, egg and poultry stores, three hardware stores, eight grain, cattle and produce dealers two toy and fancy stores, five millinery stores, three agricultural establishments, seven blacksmith shops, four wagon shops, two meat markets, two furniture stores, three jeweler shops, one foundry and machine shop, five shoe-makers' shops, two gun and pistol shops, two merchant tailors, four paint shops, two flouring mills, two lumber yards, one glove and mitten factory, one well auger factory, one wood-sawing machine factory, four sewing machine offices, three harness shops, one brick yard, six stone masons, two hotels, seven saloons, two livery stables, one trotting park and fair grounds, two elevators, three churches, four church organizations, one graded and high school, one Masonic lodge, two law offices, four notary publics, one internal revenue office, six physicians, one dentist, two express offices, one bank, two printing offices, two photograph galleries, two railroads, two ice houses, one laundry , two barber shops, two dairy milk factories, one library (of eight hundred volumes) and reading room, one literary club, and a fine unimproved water power on "Kitty Creek."
Was first settled in 1837, by a colony from the Red River of the North-Lord Selkirk's country. They made a journey of a thousand miles with ox carts, drawn by a single ox, and not a particle of iron about the whole vehicle. The principle men were John and Alexander Sutherland, James Brimner, David McKoy, Alexander McLain, and their familiesin all thirty persons.
In 1839 Donald Livingston, E. and D. Sutherland, Donald Sinclair, David Eason, with their families, numbering thirty-three, joined their friends at the Grove. They were an industrious and hardy people, and are now in prosperous circumstances.
October 31, 1872, the Applegates platted and recorded a town named Scotch Grove.
FARM CREEK, in Washington Township, was first settled in 1836 or 1837, by Abraham Hostetter, John Rafferty, M. Lupton and others, in all eleven persons. They built their cabins along the creek north of the Maquoketa River. In 1838 Charles P. and James Middleton and familiesin all twenty personscame into the same neighborhood.
CLAY TOWNSHIP.Ben Collins, an old hunter, settled south of the river, on Clay Township, at an early day.
Among the old settlers were Cyrus Blancet, John French, Peter Smith and son, Mr. Hanna, James Hutton, D. K. and Daniel Barnhill, Chaucey C. Butler, widow Randall, J. Ingraham, Jesse Tomlinson, Chaucey Gowen, Jacob Bodenhoffer, Isaac and Peter Waters, M. C. Walters, James Hall, F. J. Tyrone, etc.
ROME.Richard J. Cleveland, about 1837; Horace and N. B. Seeley, Isaac Simpson, Daniel and Solomon Garrison, Orville Conkright, Hiram Stewart, William Hamilton, John Merritt, and others came before 1840, erected their cabins, and commenced the work of civilization.
At WYOMING, Thomas Green, about 1839; William Knight, Taylor, Joseph and Richard Van Valkenberg, and their father were among the first.
LANGWORTHY was settled very soon after Anamosa, and some of the first pioneers are still living. The town was laid out January 2, 1858, by William T. Shaw. The Browns, Joslins, Peets, Crows, and Parsons were the first on the south side of the Wapsipinicon, and Clement Russell is said to be among the first, if not the first in Fairview.
CASTLE GROVE.Among the first settlers in this township were, Simon Forman, Isaac R. Orcutt, Joshua R. and James Clark, Scott, Thomas S. Hubbard, Enoch, George and Albert Higby, P. Mitchell, George and Horace Gill, D. Bartholomew, D. M. Hogan, J. S. Lathrop, and others. The Indians occupied the country until 1847. The last elk was killed by Joseph Collyer, in 1842, and young buffalos were taken near Clear Lake as late as 1849. There is one cheese factory in this township, and the dairy business is rapidly increasing.
Jones County derived its name from George W. Jones, then United States Surveyor, who had an office at Dubuque. It was a part of a strip one hundred miles in width, including all the counties from Dubuque to the Missouri line, called the "Blackhawk Purchase."
The first general election for delegates to the Territorial Legislature, was held September 11, 1838, at the house of Barrett Whittemore, on Bowen's Prairieeleven votes were cast. Later the same year Jones County was set off with its present boundaries by act of the Territorial Legislature; and January 24, 1838, the county was duly organized, the first preliminary meeting being held at the house of said Whittemore. Honorable Thomas S. Wilson, Judge; William Hutton, Clerk. The military road from Dubuque to Iowa City, laid out by the United States Government through Jones County, greatly increased the population, and the act of the Territorial Legislature establishing public schools, January 1, 1839, encouraged immigration from the Eastern States.
July 24, 1839, the first political caucus was held in Clement Russell's house for nominating county and territorial officers, and George H. Walworth was nominated for the Assembly. August 5, following, at the second general election, Bowen's Prairie precinct cast 42 votes. At this time there were three precincts in the county, viz; Bowen's Prairie, Fairview, and Rome. Walworth was elected.
January 24, 1839, the Legislature appointed Simeon Gardner, of Clinton County; Israel Mitchell, of Linn County; William H. Whiteside of Dubuque County, to locate the county seat. In the Spring of 1840, the commissioners came to Jones County and with George H. Walworth, examined different locations, and finally going to Scotch Grove, fixed on a central point and laid out a town, and named it Edinburgh, which they intended for the county seat. A few years afterwards it was moved to Newport, and in 1847, to Lexington. Edmund Booth, the deaf and dumb editor of the Eureka, gives the following amusing account of these early capital removals, and the state of the county at that time;
"In 1847, by vote of the people, the county seat was removed from Newportthree miles from what was then called Rometo Lexington. Newport had but a single building made of logs; the dwelling of Adam Overacker, now in California. The county seat had been removed by a similar vote from Edinburgh to Newport two years previously, and the district court had been convened to meet there. Judge Thomas S. Wilson of Dubuque, one of the territorial judges, the lawyers, jury, witnesses, and the usual throng came in, and there was no court house, and only the small log building of Adam Overacker. Judge Wilson, naturally enough, was disgusted, and rather than hold court in the bushes and the tall wild grass that grew luxuriantly everywhere, he adjourned the court and went home. Of course the crowd followed his example, and there was no court.
"At the next session of the Territorial Legislature, a law was passed authorizing a free choice by popular vote. The law of two years previous had authorized the County Commissioners to name two places, and the people to select one or the other, and thus the choice was between Cascade and Newport, in opposite parts of the county. On the first votethe point to be selected optional to all votersno one place had a majority over all the votes cast, and, as provided by the new law, the two highest only were then voted on. This brought the county seat to Lexington."
At Lexington (now Anamosa) was held the next meeting of the Board of County Commissioners, consisting of Charles P. Hutton, Ambrose Parsons, and Matthew Simpson. William Hutton was county clerk then, and had been for several years previous. The first lawyer who established himself in the county was C. C. Rockwell, who subsequently became clerk of the Senate.
June 15, 1840, the first census of Jones County was taken by Hugh Bowen, and footed up as follows; Males, 290; females, 185; total, 475, so rapidly did the settlers come in during the first three or four years.
It is proper to state here that the first public land sales for Jones County, took place at Dubuque, and Barrett Whittemore was selected to bid off the old settlers' claims.
March 22, 1841, the district court was held in Edinburgh, probably the first in the county. Judge Wilson, presiding; Hugh Bowen, Sheriff.
The old records having been lost, renders it difficult to state with accuracy the early proceedings.
The county officials for 1875, are;
CHARLES CLINE, Auditor.
B. H. WHITE, Clerk of Courts.
J. H. DICKEY, Treasurer.
J. O. DUER, Recorder.
A. J. BYERLY, Sheriff.
GEORGE O. JOHNSON, Supt. of Common Schools.
J. A. CRAWFORD, Chairman Board of Supervisors.
The Anamosa News was the first paper started in Jones County, February, 1852, William Haddock, editor. This was changed to Anamosa Bulletin,Brooks, editor, in 1855, and again changed to Anamosa Gazette, Joseph Mann and Ralph Sawyer, editors, in 1856. In 1858 Mr. Hayes took charge, conducting it until October of that year, when it collapsed, and was revived in 1861, surviving but three months.
The Anamosa Eureka was established by C. L. D. Crockwell and John E. Lovejoy, in August, 1856. The following year Crockwell and Parrott were the editors; April, 1858, Booth and Parrott; December 11, 1862, Edmund Booth, and at present Edmund Booth and Son are editors and proprietors.
The Anamosa Journal was established in 1872 by C. H. Monger.
The Monticello Express was started by O. D. Crane, July 10, 1865. It passed into the hands of James Davidsonthen Scott & Howard, then J. H. Scott, then G. W. Hunt, and at present is under the editorial management of John Blanchard.
The Jones County Liberal was established by George W. Hunt, September 19, 1872, and is still flourishing.
The Wyoming Journal, started by A. L. Smith, April, 1871, was afterwards edited by Reverend E. Skinner, and finally by N. W. Woodford, and is defunct.
The Wyoming News was established by Hunt & Howard, November 19, 1873, and has since been discontinued. The Wyoming Journal is now published under the editorship of P. D. Swigart.
The Olin Times was established by Stickle & Arien, August 1874, and has since died.
The present county seat of Jones County, was named from an Indian girl, the daughter of Nasinus, a chief, and signifies White Fawn. The name was chosen by Gideon H. Ford and Edwin Booth, and was suggested by the following incident; About 1842, three Indiansa man, woman and daughtercame into the hotel in the town, which was then called Dartmouth. At a glance it was seen they were not the common skin-dressed, half-wild and dirty class. They wore the look of intelligence, quite different from the general dull aspect of their race. The man and woman were dressed mostly in the costume of white people, with some Indian mixed, but the girl, bright and pleasant-faced, apparently about 8 or 10 years of age, was wholly in Indian dress, as became the daughter of a chief. She was really a handsome girl, and wore ornamental leggings and moccassins, having the appearance of a well dressed Indian belle. They were free from that wary watchfulness of their race, and although somewhat reserved at first, were possessed of an easy dignity. They became cheerful and communicative, and, when the name of the girl was asked, the parents replied, An-a-mo-sah. The daughter laughed the pleasant, half-bashful laugh of a young girl, showing that she understood the question, but did not speak. From this moment these gentlemen determined that the town should be called Anamosa, and it was some years afterwards changed by order of the court, Judge Wilson, presiding. The city seal bears the White Fawn.
The first settlers at the "Buffalo Forks of the Waubisipinicon," as the old maps have it, were George Russ and Sherebiah Dakin, both of Maine, who came May 15, 1838, and claimed sections 2, 3, 4, and ¼ of 9 and 10, in what is now Fairview township, for milling purposes. They employed J. H. Bartlett and family, Messrs. Smith and Carpenter, and D. G. Dumars, who came the same year, and commenced building their cabins. In August that sickness which extended over Northern Illinois, Indiana, and Southern Michigan prevailed here also, and before October, Russ, Smith and Carpenter were dead.
A son of Major Russ (George H.) came a few days after his father's death. Gideon H. Ford arrived about the same time, and found them all disheartened, and anxious to sell. Ford bought them out, and in the Winter of 1838-'9 sold two-thirds of the claim to Timothy Davis and George H. Walworth. The claim included the whole site of Anamosa. It was all government land, and was not brought into market till the Summer of 1840. In the Spring of 1839 they commenced building a saw mill, which was undermined the following year. Two brothers and two sisters of Mr. Walworth moved to the Forks in 1839, and Edwin Booth arrived there August 18th of the same year. He says he "found a settlement consisting of eighteen log cabins, extending along the south border of the timber from Highland Grove to Viola." Clement Russell and family came into Fairview township, July, 1837, and John G. Joslin, Aug. 29, of the same year. Those who came in 1838 were Lathrop Olmsted, Silas, James and Ambrose Parsons, Benoni Brown (who died age 103, lacking three months), Calvin C. Reed, Samuel Kelly et al. In the Spring of 1839 came Gideon N. Peet, Henry Van Buskirk and family, and others.
The first settlers within the corporation of Anamosa were Colonel David Wood and his brother-in-law, Edmund Booth. They built the first frame house, in 1840, at the present intersection of Brown avenue and High streets, near the grove. In this house E. Booth was married by J. G. Joslin, justice of the peace. He had no form. Queen Victoria had just been married, and the ceremony was in the papers. The justice took that form, and the happy couple were pronounced husband and wife after the manner of the Church of England.
Colonel Wood died the following winter, and his widow married Gideon H. Ford, now of Webster City. The first blacksmith shop in Anamosa was put up by G. H. Ford in 1842. The first shoe shop by Henry Waggoner, the first justice of the peace was Harry Mahan, the first child born was Maria, daughter of G. H. and Hannah Ford. She afterwards married Joseph Fisher, and resided at Webster City.
The town has borne three names, viz; When Col. Fox, of Bellvue, was here surveying the country seat (Edinburgh), he accompanied G. H. Walworth to Buffalo Forks, and the next day laid off a new town. Walworth perplexed his brain for weeks for a name, and finally called it Dartmouth, in honor of Dartmouth College. Two or three years later, John Crockwell and Harry Mahan laid offjust west of Dartmouth, including the penitentiary groundsa plat, and named it Lexington, and placed it upon the record. Dartmouth was never recorded as such, and so was dropped. In 1846, or 7, by vote of the people, Lexington became the county seat, and the name was afterwards changed to Anamosa, as above described. In 1856 it was incorporated as a village, and in 1872 as a cityRobert Dott being the first Mayor.
The present city officials are; Mayor, Robert Dott; Aldermen, E. B. Alderman, , Rigley, J. S. Belknap, L. Scoonover, C. M. Failing, Geo. Watters, E. V. Eaton, J. B. McQueen; Treasurer, W. S. Benton; Clerk, L. D. Peck; City Solicitor, G. W. Field.
At this date, 1875, Anamosa contains seven dry goods stores, twelve groceries, four drug stores, five boot and shoe stores, four clothing stores, three book stores, three butter, egg and poultry stores, four hardware stores, five cattle, grain and produce stores, four fancy goods and toys stores, four millinery stores, three agricultural establishments, seven blacksmith shops, five wagon shops, one meat market, two furniture stores, two jewelers, one foundry, six shoemaker shops, one gun shop, two merchant tailors, three flouring mills, one lumber yard, two wood-sawing machines, four sewing machine offices, three harness shops, three brickyards, twenty-five stone masons, three hotels, five saloons, two livery stables, two elevators, five churches, two schools, one high school, one Masonic lodge, one Chapter, two Odd Fellows' lodges, one Good Templar's, ten law offices, six doctors, two dentists, one express office, two banks, two printing offices, three photograph galleries, two railroads, three ice houses, two laundries, three barber shops, one dairy milk factory, three libraries, two reading rooms, two literary clubs, two dramatic clubs.
April 26, 1875, an ordinance was passed by the City Council to provide the citizens of Anamosa with water for domestic use and fire protection, and a company was formed, under the laws of Iowa, consisting of H. C. Metcalf, N. S. Noble, E. Blakeslee, C. L. Niles, T. W. Shapley, Geo. Watters, E. B. Alderman, John Watters and J. C. Dietz, with a capital stock of $10,000. Ground was broken May 20, 1875; water to be taken from the Wapsipinicon river.
The new State Penitentiary, now in process of erection at Anamosa, will be one of the finest buildings in the state, and among the best arranged and magnificent prisons in the west. The grounds consist of fifteen acres, which are enclosed.*
The citizens of Anamosa donated to the state the fifteen acres in town, and upon which the prison has been located; and also, sixty-one acres of good pasture land, in close proximity to the prison. The quarry lands, purchased of N. G. Sales, for $15,000, contain 128 acres, and have three open quarries upon them. The largest has quite an extent of surface stripped, and a great quantity of stone is now available. The second has a small surface exposed, and good flagging and rubble stone is taken out. The third was opened by the railway being graded through it, exposing a fine strata of stonewith but little earth upon it. The quantity of stone can not be estimated. From the highest point in the first quarry, a depth of seventy feet has been reached, and the deeper the work has been carried the better the stone becomes-a finer texture being found. These state quarries are sufficient to meet all demands of the state for public buildings, even though all those now erected and in course of erection were to be replacedall to be taken out of the main quarry. The supply is inexhaustible for centuries to come. Lime of good quality has been made from these stones, and could be made a profitable business. The state geologist describes the stone as follows; "The Anamosa quarries are in the upper silurian limestone, which, every where in Iowa, is magnesian, and which usually lacks uniformity in both stratification and structure; but within an area containing apparently about two square miles its stratification is wonderfully uniform, and its texture is quite homogeneous. When first taken from the quarry the stone is easily worked, but hardens by exposure to the air, and becomes firm and durable, enduring any amount of pressure."
The quarry is but three miles from the prison.
The building, shops, walls and all will be built of stone obtained from the state quarries mentioned, and the labor will be chiefly done by the prisoners, who seem to work with a will, as though they had a personal interest in completing the entire work before their engagement with the state expires.
THE STATE PISCICULTURAL ESTABLISHMENT
A full description of which is given in the state history, is located near Anamosa, and is under charge of the superintendent, B. F. Shaw. The buildings and improvements were erected during the Summer of 1874, and everything is now in good working shape and the institution is destined to accomplish much by supplying the streams and lakes of the state with valuable varieties of fish.
The county is well supplied with railroadsthe Dubuque & Southwestern passing through Fairview, Cass, Wayne and Monticello townships in a northeasterly direction; the Sabula, Ackley & Dakota passing east and west through the southern tier of townships; the Iowa Midland running east and west through the center of the county, and the St. Paul & Davenport passing in a southeasterly direction through six townships-in all about 110 miles, affording the citizens ample facilities for travel and for shipping of produce.
The alms house and farm, near the site of the ancient county capital, Edinburgh, is well managed by Mr. Platner, overseer.
The county has no court house, but occupies a very commodious hall in Shaw's block.
The jail is a substantial stone building in Anamosa; Thos. Buckner, jailor.
The Methodists are the most numerous. They have one church in Richland township, two in Monticello, one in Cass, three in Wayne, two in Scotch Grove, one in Clay, one in Wyoming, two in Madison, one in Fairview, and two in Rometotal sixteen, with an estimated membership of 780.
The Baptists have five churches, one in Anamosa, one in Fairview, one in Olin, one in Hale and one in Clay, with a total membership of 322.
The Congregationalists have four churches; one in Anamosa, one at Bowen's Prairie, one at Monticello, and one in Casstotal membership, 262.
A large number of other denominations, the Disciples, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Universalists, Catholics, etc., are represented.
There are about 175 public schools in the county; three high schools, at Monticello, Anamosa and Wyoming, all under the supervision of a county superintendent. The houses are frame and brick buildings, substantial and commodious, and the system of instruction improving. There is a Catholic school at Anamosa.
The county is amply supplied with quarries of the finest building stone. Near Monticello and Anamosa, and in other localities, the upper silurian limestone crops out. This is every where magnesian in Iowa, and lacks uniformity in structure and stratification, but in this locality it is far otherwise. The quarry on the west bank of the Wapsipinicon, three miles west of Anamosa, possesses wonderful uniformity, and its texture is perfectly homogeneous. From the water to the top of the bluff, a thickness of ninety feet, nearly all is valuable building material. The stone is fine-grained, non-crystalline, very uniformly and horizontally bedded, and is easily worked. It readily splits into thin layers, with smooth surfaces, and makes most excellent flagging. Some of these layers will furnish blocks three or four feet thick and of any desirable length for sills, caps, water tables, and even for columns. The color is light buff, and does not change by action of the atmosphere.
*For a more full description see State History.